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Der Prozess der Überprüfung durch das Kreditkartenunternehmen dauert oft sehr lange. Außerdem muss das Sicherheitsrisiko erwähnt werden. Besonders bei kleineren Online-Shops sollten Sie genau schauen, ob die Übermittlung Ihrer Daten sicher von statten .  · Vergleich der Online Banking Anbieter für Kryptowährungen Viele Enthusiasten der Kryptowährungen sind mehr als glücklich der normalen Welt der Hochfinanz zu entkommen. Seit es möglich ist, erfolgreich Fiat Gelder in reine Kryptwwährungen umzutauschen, entwickeln sich neue Infrastrukturen bei den Banken.5/5(7).

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Der Wechselservice ist für Sie absolut kostenlos. This study suggests that it is not only what we think but also how we think about our connections to intimate partners that relates to wellbeing as we age. This study assesses security of attachment to intimate partners in older adults using an interview that is appropriate to both the age and the life experience of individuals who are now in their 70s and 80s.

An important goal of this study was to identify what attachment to an intimate partner looks like in old age. Do the same domains of security, avoidance, and anxiety that characterize models of attachment in children and younger adults emerge in the interviews of older adults?

The emergence of a single cohesive Attachment Security factor in our sample raises the possibility that there may be differences in the structure of attachment in older adults. The nine attachment variables grouped together on a single dimension that at one extreme entailed coherence in the account of the relationship, valuing of intimacy and the partner, and comfort with caregiving and careseeking.

The other extreme of the scale was characterized by narratives about the marriage that were less convincing and coherent, by derogation of the partner, and by dismissing the importance of the partner and the relationship. Individuals who expressed unmet needs for support, intimacy, and closeness scored low on this scale, as did individuals who said that such needs were not present or important.

Our findings suggest a more unitary structure of insecure attachment in older adults than is the case in younger adults. Two perspectives afforded by old age may converge to shape this more unidimensional manifestation of insecure attachment to partners in late life — 1 older adults look back on a lifetime of accumulated experiences of intimacy, and 2 they have a heightened awareness of mortality.

With regard to looking back on the course of intimacy, some of the least happy individuals in this study longed for intimate connection, but in reviewing their marriages, they appeared resigned to the futility of expecting it from their partners.

I would get no sympathy. Hope of intimacy may no longer spring eternal for such individuals, and resignation or acceptance could be a factor in the apparent reduction in attachment anxiety seen both in the Zhang and Labouvie-Vief study and in this sample.

The second factor that may shape attachment in late life is mortality salience. Empirical studies in experimental social psychology e. Mikulincer and Shaver have proposed that when proximity-seeking is inhibited by insecure attachment, individuals are left defenseless in the face of mortality concerns, and these feelings must be managed in other ways.

Those who cannot find comfort in close relationships might manage anxiety about death with other forms of self-protection, such as greater investment in a cultural worldview e. For example, the study participant quoted above went on to note that he had no hope of receiving comfort from his wife but that he turned to God for solace: He accepts that I have strengths and weaknesses. Because death is near, such people would need to seek comfort in other ways. For men, greater security was also associated with less depressive symptomatology.

These associations are not surprising. Conversely, lack of comfort with caregiving or careseeking, and the sense that a partner cannot be relied on for support, might well contribute to more frequent conflicts in the marriage, particularly as needs for support increase with age. It is also possible that causal influences operate in the other direction — that is, being in a good marriage may contribute to feelings of security.

Looking across time, security of attachment predicted wellbeing 2. For both men and women, more secure attachment predicted greater satisfaction with life, less depressive symptomatology, and less negative affect as reported on the PANAS.

The moderate-to-large magnitude of these correlations i. This may reflect something unique about positive affectivity or may be related to the nature of positive affect in late life.

Of particular note, less secure attachment predicted poorer memory function for women 2. The association of attachment security and memory is noteworthy given links found in other studies between loneliness and cognitive decline. The association between attachment security and memory was not found for men. Moreover, security of attachment was not associated with executive functioning for men or for women, raising the possibility that the effects of insecure attachment on cognition may be domain-specific.

Replication is required to determine the robustness of these findings. In addition, it is important to note that, because these cognitive, affective and wellbeing measures were only assessed at one time point, temporal precedence and the direction of effects cannot be established. We hypothesized that insecure attachment to the partner might make it difficult for older adults to weather the normal stresses of living. We further hypothesized that the wear-and-tear of marital disagreements might be magnified in the context of insecure attachment and thereby impact memory.

The significant interaction that we found for the women in this sample between attachment security and frequency of marital disagreements in predicting memory function is consistent with these hypotheses. There was no significant link between frequency of marital disagreements and memory for more securely-attached women but a significant link for women who are less securely attached to their partners.

A number of study limitations are important to bear in mind. Methodological issues may be responsible for the absence of discrete factors for anxiety and avoidance and for the finding that two insecurities related to anxious attachment — unrealistic fears about depending on and losing the other — were not prominent in these interviews.

It is possible that 1 the interview did not facilitate the expression of two discrete types of insecure attachment, 2 our coders may not have been able to distinguish between these dimensions or between realistic and unrealistic fears around dependency and loss, or 3 our scoring system may not have accurately assessed these dimensions. Data on psychosocial functioning were missing to varying extents, but most particularly in the Time 2 measures.

Analyses revealed missingness to be largely at random, and use of FIML for primary analyses allowed us to include all participants. Measures at Time 1 and Time 2 e. All participants in this study were Caucasian and were from two particular historical and demographic cohorts, pointing to the need for studies of attachment security and wellbeing in other populations. Finally, a larger sample may increase the power to detect a more complicated factor structure in late-life attachment.

An important strength of this study is the incorporation of diverse methods of assessment. Both mood and frequency of marital disagreements were measured using daily telephone interviews over 8 consecutive days. Security of attachment was rated from interview transcripts, and marital satisfaction was assessed using self-report questionnaires, two distinct sources of information that make the strong correlations between these variables particularly impressive.

We used a measure of memory functioning that is sensitive in distinguishing normal retrieval deficits from true cognitive decline in the elderly. Longitudinal follow-up of participants allowed for examination of wellbeing not just concurrent with measurement of attachment security but 2. Finally, the implicit measure of attachment security has several advantages noted above. In this study, we found that more secure mental models of marital relationships in late life are linked directly with greater wellbeing, and that more secure models of attachment appear to buffer older women from the potentially deleterious effects of marital conflict on cognition.

Moving forward, it will be critical to identify exactly what it is about secure attachment that promotes wellbeing as we age.

Health-promoting mechanisms of attachment security may include those that operate principally within individuals, such as the solace of believing that someone will be available in times of need; and behaviors, motivations or attitudes toward a partner that benefit both members of the dyad. Studies in which older couples are carefully observed discussing stage-salient attachment concerns such as end-of-life vulnerability and care are a critical next step. The goal in these studies should be to identify experiences, behaviors, motivations and attitudes that distinguish securely-attached from insecurely-attached individuals in this important late-life context and to determine whether these distinctions mediate the attachment-wellbeing linkage.

Researchers also need to be attentive to the possibility that these mechanisms may operate in complex ways. Our findings regarding the moderating role of attachment on links between marital conflict and memory are consistent with a stress-buffering hypothesis Holt-Lunstad et al.

Such buffering mechanisms would only be evident under stress. Deeper understanding of these mechanisms has the potential to inform interventions that promote healthy aging. As social networks narrow in late life and intimate partnerships are more central, security of romantic attachment may emerge as an increasingly important factor in aging well. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Author manuscript; available in PMC Jun 1.

Waldinger , a Shiri Cohen , a Marc S. Schulz , b and Judith A. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Clin Psychol Sci. See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Abstract Social ties are powerful predictors of late-life health and wellbeing. Of particular relevance to attachment security is their hypothesis that social isolation and loneliness may result in chronic surveillance for threat, placing increased cognitive demands on the brain and thereby reducing available resources for creative adaptation In the current study, we assessed models of attachment to spouses in a group of couples in their 70s and 80s, using a semi-structured interview designed specifically to tap implicit as well as explicit aspects of attachment.

Method Participants The sample for this study consisted of 81 elderly Caucasian heterosexual couples. Men Women Time 1 assessments Marital satisfaction Open in a separate window. Procedure The first wave of assessments for this study took place in — Results Means and standard deviations for variables indexing psychosocial functioning are presented in Table 1. Links between security of attachment and psychosocial functioning Correlational links between security of attachment to partner and psychosocial functioning were examined and are presented in Table 3.

Security of attachment as a buffer of the effects of stress on late-life memory In light of recent research suggesting differential susceptibility of older adults to the effects of stress on cognitive functioning e.

Discussion Understanding the aging process depends in part on clarifying the nature of the links between healthy aging and personal relationships.

Footnotes Author contributions R. Waldinger designed the overall study in consultation with the other authors and oversaw data collection. Waldinger developed the coding system in consultation with J. Cohen supervised the coding of interviews under the supervision of J. Schulz performed the data analysis and interpretation.

Waldinger drafted the paper with the assistance of M. Schulz, and all co-authors provided critical revisions. All authors approved the final version of the paper for submission. Working with missing values.

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