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Angutinnguaq Schmidt is on Facebook. Join Facebook to connect with Angutinnguaq Schmidt and others you may know. Facebook gives people the power to share.  · From "Le Nozze di Figaro" Opera Cherubino's Aria - Non So Piu Cosa Son Cosa Faccio Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart / Trad. Adapt.: ADYA.


Skip to main content. Browse Related Browse Related. Also shop in Also shop in. Plays well although i do not have information on any prior restoration history.

Tuning knob is a little tighter than i Scott wood radio knobs- painted black- I am not sure if this way from the factory or painted later. There are a couple of dented amplifier cans. I do not have the speaker or cabinet, sorry. Tubes are untested and Up for sale here is this antique EH Scott radio chassis.

He received the largest distribution, governing all of the Eastern provinces while retaining Gaul in the West. Octavian's position improved, as he received Spain, which was taken from Lepidus. Lepidus was then reduced to holding only Africa, and he assumed a clearly tertiary role in the Triumvirate. Rule over Italy remained undivided, but Octavian was assigned the difficult and unpopular task of demobilizing their veterans and providing them with land distributions in Italy.

During his absence, several of his supporters held key positions in Rome to protect his interests there. The East was in need of reorganization after the rule of the Liberators in the previous years.

The Parthian threat to the Triumvirate's rule was urgent due to the fact that the Parthians supported the Liberators in the recent civil war, aid which included the supply troops at Philippi.

In 42 BC, the Roman East was composed of several directly controlled provinces and client kingdoms. Approximately half of the eastern territory was controlled by Rome's client kingdoms, nominally independent kingdoms subject to Roman direction. Antony spent the winter of 42 BC in Athens , where he ruled generously towards the Greek cities.

A proclaimed philhellene "Friend of all things Greek" , Antony supported Greek culture to win the loyalty of the inhabitants of the Greek East. He attended religious festivals and ceremonies, including initiation into the Eleusinian Mysteries , [94] a secret cult dedicated to the worship of the goddesses Demeter and Persephone. Upon his arrival in Ephesus in Asia, Antony was worshiped as the god Dionysus born anew. He granted pardons to all Roman nobles living in the East who had supported the Republican cause, except for Caesar's assassins.

Ruling from Ephesus, Antony consolidated Rome's hegemony in the East, receiving envoys from Rome's client kingdoms and intervening in their dynastic affairs, extracting enormous financial "gifts" from them in the process. Though King Deiotarus of Galatia supported Brutus and Cassius following Caesar's assassination, Antony allowed him to retain his position. In Hasmonean Judea , several Jewish delegations complained to Antony of the harsh rule of Phasael and Herod , the sons of Rome's assassinated chief Jewish minister Antipater the Idumaean.

After Herod offered him a large financial gift, Antony confirmed the brothers in their positions. Subsequently, influenced by the beauty and charms of Glaphyra , the widow of Archelaüs formerly the high priest of Comana , Antony deposed Ariarathes, and appointed Glaphyra's son, Archelaüs , to rule Cappadocia.

Antony had first met a young Cleopatra while campaigning in Egypt in 55 BC and again in 48 BC when Caesar had backed her as queen of Egypt over the claims of her half-sister Arsinoe. After Caesar's assassination, Cleopatra and Caesarion returned to Egypt, where she named the child as her co-ruler.

In 42 BC, the Triumvirate, in recognition for Cleopatra's help towards Publius Cornelius Dolabella in opposition to the Liberators, granted official recognition to Caesarion's position as king of Egypt. Arriving in Tarsus aboard her magnificent ship, Cleopatra invited Antony to a grand banquet to solidify their alliance. At Cleopatra's request, Antony ordered the execution of Arsinoe, who, though marched in Caesar's triumphal parade in 46 BC, [97] had been granted sanctuary at the temple of Artemis in Ephesus.

Antony and Cleopatra then spent the winter of 41 BC together in Alexandria. Antony also granted formal control over Cyprus, which had been under Egyptian control since 47 BC during the turmoil of Caesar's civil war , to Cleopatra in 40 BC as a gift for her loyalty to Rome.

Antony, in his first months in the East, raised money, reorganized his troops, and secured the alliance of Rome's client kingdoms. He also promoted himself as Hellenistic ruler, which won him the affection of the Greek peoples of the East but also made him the target of Octavian's propaganda in Rome.

According to some ancient authors, Antony led a carefree life of luxury in Alexandria. However, after a short stay in Tyre , he was forced to sail with his army to Italy to confront Octavian due to Octavian's war against Antony's wife and brother.

Following the defeat of Brutus and Cassius, while Antony was stationed in the East, Octavian had authority over the West. Additionally, tens of thousands of veterans who had fought for the Republican cause in the war also required land grants.

This was necessary to ensure they would not support a political opponent of the Triumvirate. This left Octavian with two choices: Octavian chose the former. Led by Fulvia , the wife of Antony, the Senators grew hostile towards Octavian over the issue of the land confiscations. According to the ancient historian Cassius Dio , Fulvia was the most powerful woman in Rome at the time. As the mother-in-law of Octavian and the wife of Antony, no action was taken by the Senate without her support. The conflict between Octavian and Fulvia caused great political and social unrest throughout Italy.

Tensions escalated into open war, however, when Octavian divorced Clodia Pulchra , Fulvia's daughter from her first husband Publius Clodius Pulcher. Outraged, Fulvia, supported by Lucius, raised an army to fight for Antony's rights against Octavian. According to the ancient historian Appian , Fulvia's chief reason for the war was her jealousy of Antony's affairs with Cleopatra in Egypt and desire to draw Antony back to Rome. However, when Octavian returned to the city with his army, the pair was forced to retreat to Perusia in Etruria.

Octavian placed the city under siege while Lucius waited for Antony's legions in Gaul to come to his aid. While Octavian pardoned Lucius for his role in the war and even granted him command in Spain as his chief lieutenant there, Fulvia was forced to flee to Greece with her children. With the war over, Octavian was left in sole control over Italy.

When Antony's governor of Gaul died, Octavian took over his legions there, further strengthening his control over the West.

Despite the Parthian Empire's invasion of Rome's eastern territories, Fulvia's civil war forced Antony to leave the East and return to Rome in order to secure his position. Meeting her in Athens, Antony rebuked Fulvia for her actions before sailing on to Italy with his army to face Octavian, laying siege to Brundisium.

This new conflict proved untenable for both Octavian and Antony, however. Their centurions, who had become important figures politically, refused to fight due to their shared service under Caesar. The legions under their command followed suit. The Roman world was redivided, with Antony receiving the Eastern provinces, Octavian the Western provinces, and Lepidus relegated to a clearly junior position as governor of Africa.

This agreement, known as the Treaty of Brundisium , reinforced the Triumvirate and allowed Antony to begin preparing for Caesar's long-awaited campaign against the Parthian Empire. The rise of the Parthian Empire in the 3rd century BC and Rome's expansion into the Eastern Mediterranean during the 2nd century BC brought the two powers into direct contact, causing centuries of tumultuous and strained relations. Though periods of peace developed cultural and commercial exchanges, war was a constant threat.

Influence over the buffer state of the Kingdom of Armenia , located to the north-east of Roman Syria , was often a central issue in the Roman-Parthian conflict. Tigranes would wage a series of three wars against Rome before being ultimately defeated by Pompey in 66 BC. Artavasdes II offered Crassus the aid of nearly forty thousand troops to assist his Parthian expedition on the condition that Crassus invade through Armenia as the safer route.

Crassus' actions proved disastrous as his army was defeated at the Battle of Carrhae by a numerically inferior Parthian force. His reasons were to punish the Parthians for assisting Pompey in the recent civil war , to avenge Crassus' defeat at Carrhae, and especially to match the glory of Alexander the Great for himself.

As part of the compromise between Antony and the Republicans to restore order following Caesar's murder, Publius Cornelius Dolabella was assigned the governorship of Syria and command over Caesar's planned Parthian campaign. The compromise did not hold, however, and the Republicans were forced to flee to the East. The Republicans directed Quintus Labienus to attract the Parthians to their side in the resulting war against Antony and Octavian. The legions, however, were composed of former Republican troops and Labienus convinced Orodes II to invade.

Labienus, the Republican ally of Brutus and Cassius, accompanied him to advise him and to rally the former Republican soldiers stationed in Syria to the Parthian cause.

Labienus recruited many of the former Republican soldiers to the Parthian campaign in opposition to Antony. The joint Parthian—Roman force, after initial success in Syria, separated to lead their offensive in two directions: Labienus conquered southern Anatolia with little resistance. The Roman governor of Asia , Lucius Munatius Plancus , a partisan of Antony, was forced to flee his province, allowing Labienus to recruit the Roman soldiers stationed there.

For his part, Pacorus advanced south to Phoenicia and Palestine. In Hasmonean Judea , the exiled prince Antigonus allied himself with the Parthians. When his brother, Rome's client king Hyrcanus II , refused to accept Parthian domination, he was deposed in favor of Antigonus as Parthia's client king in Judea.

Pacorus' conquest had captured much of the Syrian and Palestinian interior, with much of the Phoenician coast occupied as well. The city of Tyre remained the last major Roman outpost in the region. Antony, then in Egypt with Cleopatra, did not respond immediately to the Parthian invasion. Though he left Alexandria for Tyre in early 40 BC, when he learned of the civil war between his wife and Octavian , he was forced to return to Italy with his army to secure his position in Rome rather than defeat the Parthians.

Ventidius ordered Labienus executed as a traitor and the formerly rebellious Roman soldiers under his command were reincorporated under Antony's control. He then met a Parthian army at the border between Cilicia and Syria, defeating it and killing a large portion of the Parthian soldiers at the Amanus Pass. Ventidius's actions temporarily halted the Parthian advance and restored Roman authority in the East, forcing Pacorus to abandon his conquests and return to Parthia.

In the spring of 38 BC, the Parthians resumed their offensive with Pacorus leading an army across the Euphrates. Ventidius, in order to gain time, leaked disinformation to Pacorus implying that he should cross the Euphrates River at their usual ford. Pacorus did not trust this information and decided to cross the river much farther downstream; this was what Ventidius hoped would occur and gave him time to get his forces ready.

At the Battle of Cyrrhestica , Ventidius inflicted an overwhelming defeat against the Parthians which resulted in the death of Pacorus.

Overall, the Roman army had achieved a complete victory with Ventidius' three successive victories forcing the Parthians back across the Euphrates. Ventidius feared Antony's wrath if he invaded Parthian territory, thereby stealing his glory; so instead he attacked and subdued the eastern kingdoms, which had revolted against Roman control following the disastrous defeat of Crassus at Carrhae.

Antiochus tried to make peace with Ventidius, but Ventidius told him to approach Antony directly. After peace was concluded, Antony sent Ventidius back to Rome where he celebrated a triumph , the first Roman to triumph over the Parthians. While Antony and the other Triumvirs ratified the Treaty of Brundisium to redivide the Roman world among themselves, the rebel general Sextus Pompey , the son of Caesar's rival Pompey the Great , was largely ignored.

From his stronghold on Sicily , he continued his piratical activities across Italy and blocked the shipment of grain to Rome.

The lack of food in Rome caused the public to blame the Triumvirate and shift its sympathies towards Pompey. This pressure forced the Triumvirs to meet with Sextus in early 39 BC. While Octavian wanted an end to the ongoing blockade of Italy, Antony sought peace in the West in order to make the Triumvirate's legions available for his service in his planned campaign against the Parthians. Though the Triumvirs rejected Sextus' initial request to replace Lepidus as the third man within the Triumvirate, they did grant other concessions.

Under the terms of the Treaty of Misenum , Sextus was allowed to retain control over Sicily and Sardinia , with the provinces of Corsica and Greece being added to his territory.

In exchange, Sextus agreed to end his naval blockade of Italy, supply Rome with grain, and halt his piracy of Roman merchant ships. Many of the proscribed Senators, rather than face death, fled to Sicily seeking Sextus' protection. With the exception of those responsible for Caesar's assassination, all those proscribed were allowed to return to Rome and promised compensation.

This caused Sextus to lose many valuable allies as the formerly exiled Senators gradually aligned themselves with either Octavian or Antony. To secure the peace, Octavian betrothed his three-year-old nephew and Antony's stepson Marcus Claudius Marcellus to Sextus' daughter Pompeia.

Under an agreement with Octavian, Antony would be supplied with extra troops for his campaign. With this military purpose on his mind, Antony sailed to Greece with Octavia, where he behaved in a most extravagant manner, assuming the attributes of the Greek god Dionysus in 39 BC. The peace with Sextus was short lived, however. When Sextus demanded control over Greece as the agreement provided, Antony demanded the province's tax revenues be to fund the Parthian campaign.

These actions worked to renew Sextus' blockade of Italy, preventing Octavian from sending the promised troops to Antony for the Parthian campaign. This new delay caused Antony to quarrel with Octavian, forcing Octavia to mediate a truce between them.

Under the Treaty of Tarentum, Antony provided a large naval force for Octavian's use against Sextus while Octavian promised to raise new legions for Antony to support his invasion of Parthia. To seal the Treaty, Antony's elder son Marcus Antonius Antyllus , then only 6 years old, was betrothed to Octavian's only daughter Julia , then only an infant.

Antony, still in the West negotiating with Octavian, ordered Sosius to depose Antigonus , who had been installed in the recent Parthian invasion as the ruler of Hasmonean Judea , and to make Herod the new Roman client king in the region. Years before in 40 BC, the Roman Senate had proclaimed Herod "King of the Jews" because Herod had been a loyal supporter of Hyrcanus II , Rome's previous client king before the Parthian invasion, and was from a family with long standing connections to Rome.

Advancing south, Sosius captured the island-city of Aradus on the coast of Phoenicia by the end of 38 BC. The following year, the Romans besieged Jerusalem. After a forty-day siege, the Roman soldiers stormed the city and, despite Herod's pleas for restraint, acted without mercy, pillaging and killing all in their path, prompting Herod to complain to Antony.

Herod, however, fearing that Antigonus would win backing in Rome, bribed Antony to execute Antigonus. Antony, who recognized that Antigonus would remain a permanent threat to Herod, ordered him beheaded in Antioch.

Now secure on his throne, Herod would rule the Herodian Kingdom until his death in 4 BC, and would be an ever-faithful client king of Rome. Antony, however, realized Octavian had no intention of sending him the additional legions he had promised under the Treaty of Tarentum. To supplement his own armies, Antony instead looked to Rome's principal vassal in the East: In addition to significant financial resources, Cleopatra's backing of his Parthian campaign allowed Antony to amass the largest army Rome had ever assembled in the East.

Wintering in Antioch during 37, Antony's combined Roman—Egyptian army numbered some ,, including sixteen legions approximately , soldiers plus an additional 40, auxiliaries.

Antony's rear was protected by Rome's client kingdoms in Anatolia, Syria, and Judea, while the client kingdoms of Cappadocia, Pontus, and Commagene would provide supplies along the march.

Antony's first target for his invasion was the Kingdom of Armenia. Canidius then led an invasion into the Transcaucasia , subduing Iberia. There, Canidius forced the Iberian King Pharnavaz II into an alliance against Zober, king of neighboring Albania , subduing the kingdom and reducing it to a Roman protectorate.

Though Antony desired a pitched battle, the Parthians would not engage, allowing Antony to march deep into Parthian territory by mid-August of 36 BC. This forced Antony to leave his logistics train in the care of two legions approximately 10, soldiers , which was then attacked and completely destroyed by the Parthian army before Antony could rescue them.

Though the Armenian King Artavasdes II and his cavalry were present during the massacre, they did not intervene. Despite the ambush, Antony continued the campaign. However, Antony was soon forced to retreat in mid-October after a failed two-month siege of the provincial capital. The retreat soon proved a disaster as Antony's demoralized army faced increasing supply difficulties in the mountainous terrain during winter while constantly being harassed by the Parthian army. According to the Greek historian Plutarch , eighteen battles were fought between the retreating Romans and the Parthians during the month-long march back to Armenia, with approximately 20, infantry and 4, cavalry dying during the retreat alone.

Once in Armenia, Antony quickly marched back to Syria to protect his interests there by late 36 BC, losing an additional 8, soldiers along the way. In all, two-fifths of his original army some 80, men had died during his failed campaign. Meanwhile, in Rome, the triumvirate was no more. Octavian forced Lepidus to resign after the older triumvir attempted to take control of Sicily after the defeat of Sextus.

Now in sole power, Octavian was occupied in wooing the traditional Republican aristocracy to his side. He married Livia and started to attack Antony in order to raise himself to power. He argued that Antony was a man of low morals to have left his faithful wife abandoned in Rome with the children to be with the promiscuous queen of Egypt.

Antony was accused of everything, but most of all, of " going native ", an unforgivable crime to the proud Romans. Several times Antony was summoned to Rome, but remained in Alexandria with Cleopatra.

Again with Egyptian money, Antony invaded Armenia, this time successfully. In the return, a mock Roman triumph was celebrated in the streets of Alexandria. The parade through the city was a pastiche of Rome's most important military celebration. For the finale, the whole city was summoned to hear a very important political statement. Surrounded by Cleopatra and her children, Antony ended his alliance with Octavian. He distributed kingdoms among his children: Alexander Helios was named king of Armenia , Media and Parthia territories which were not for the most part under the control of Rome , his twin Cleopatra Selene got Cyrenaica and Libya , and the young Ptolemy Philadelphus was awarded Syria and Cilicia.

Most important of all, Caesarion was declared legitimate son and heir of Caesar. These proclamations were known as the Donations of Alexandria and caused a fatal breach in Antony's relations with Rome. While the distribution of nations among Cleopatra's children was hardly a conciliatory gesture, it did not pose an immediate threat to Octavian's political position.

Far more dangerous was the acknowledgment of Caesarion as legitimate and heir to Caesar's name. Octavian's base of power was his link with Caesar through adoption , which granted him much-needed popularity and loyalty of the legions. To see this convenient situation attacked by a child borne by the richest woman in the world was something Octavian could not accept.

The triumvirate expired on the last day of 33 BC and was not renewed. Another civil war was beginning. During 33 and 32 BC, a propaganda war was fought in the political arena of Rome, with accusations flying between sides. Antony in Egypt divorced Octavia and accused Octavian of being a social upstart, of usurping power, and of forging the adoption papers by Caesar.

Octavian responded with treason charges: Antony was also held responsible for Sextus Pompey 's execution without a trial. In 32 BC, the Senate deprived him of his powers and declared war against Cleopatra — not Antony, because Octavian had no wish to advertise his role in perpetuating Rome's internecine bloodshed.

In 31 BC, the war started. The enormous popularity of Octavian with the legions secured the defection of the provinces of Cyrenaica and Greece to his side. On September 2, the naval Battle of Actium took place.

Antony and Cleopatra's navy was overwhelmed, and they were forced to escape to Egypt with 60 ships. Octavian, now close to absolute power, did not intend to give Antony and Cleopatra any rest. With no other refuge to escape to, Antony committed suicide by stabbing himself with his sword in the mistaken belief that Cleopatra had already done so. When he found out that Cleopatra was still alive, his friends brought him to Cleopatra's monument in which she was hiding, and he died in her arms.

Cleopatra was allowed to conduct Antony's burial rites after she had been captured by Octavian. Realising that she was destined for Octavian's triumph in Rome, she made several attempts to take her life and finally succeeded in mid-August. Octavian had Caesarion murdered, but he spared Antony's children by Cleopatra, who were paraded through the streets of Rome.

Antony's daughters by Octavia were spared, as was his son, Iullus Antonius. But his elder son, Marcus Antonius Antyllus , was killed by Octavian's men while pleading for his life in the Caesareum.

Cicero 's son, Cicero Minor , announced Antony's death to the senate. When Antony died, Octavian became uncontested ruler of Rome. In the following years, Octavian, who was known as Augustus after 27 BC, managed to accumulate in his person all administrative, political, and military offices. When Augustus died in AD 14, his political powers passed to his adopted son Tiberius ; the Roman Principate had begun.

The rise of Caesar and the subsequent civil war between his two most powerful adherents effectively ended the credibility of the Roman oligarchy as a governing power and ensured that all future power struggles would centre upon which one individual would achieve supreme control of the government, eliminating the Senate and the former magisterial structure as important foci of power in these conflicts.

Thus, in history, Antony appears as one of Caesar's main adherents, he and Octavian Augustus being the two men around whom power coalesced following the assassination of Caesar, and finally as one of the three men chiefly responsible for the demise of the Roman Republic. Antony had been married in succession to Fadia, Antonia, Fulvia, Octavia and Cleopatra, and left behind him a number of children.

Through his daughters by Octavia, he would become the paternal great grandfather of Roman Emperor Caligula , the maternal grandfather of Emperor Claudius , and both maternal great-great-grandfather and paternal great-great uncle of the Emperor Nero of the Julio-Claudian dynasty , the very family, as represented by Octavian Augustus, that he had fought to defeat.

Through his eldest daughter, he would become ancestor to the long line of kings and co-rulers of the Bosporan Kingdom , the longest-living Roman client kingdom , as well as the rulers and royalty of several other Roman client states. Through his daughter by Cleopatra, Antony would become ancestor to the royal family of Mauretania , another Roman client kingdom, while through his sole surviving son Iullus , he would be ancestor to several famous Roman statesmen.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Marcus Antonius. Roman politician and general. For other Romans with a similar name, see Marcus Antonius disambiguation.

For other people with a similar name, see Mark Anthony. Serving with Octavian and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. Serving with Lucius Scribonius Libo. Serving with Julius Caesar.

Assassination of Julius Caesar. Liberators' civil war and Battle of Philippi. Pompeian—Parthian invasion of 40 BC. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message. Donations to Cleopatra's Children. The religious prohibition placed by Augustus on the day, marked as a dies vitiosus "defective" day , is explained by Linderski, "The Augural Law", Aufstieg und Niedergang der römischen Welt II.

Life of Antony Cambridge University Press, , p. According to Suetonius Claudius Drusus was born in late March or early April, based on a reference that he was born "within the third month" after his mother Livia married Augustus on 17 January; G. Radke's proposal is summarized in English by the commentary on Suetonius's sentence by Donna W.

Divus Claudius Cambridge University Press, , p. Appian, Civil Wars 5. The Romans From Village to Empire. Circolo numismatico Mario Rasile. Quintus Labienus B. Retrieved 5 February A History of the Roman People.

Retrieved 6 May Retrieved January 29, The Shards of Heaven by Michael Livingston". Jerusalem — One City. American Journal of Philology. Cesar chef de guerre: Cesar stratege et tacticien [ Caesar the Warlord: Strategy and Tactics of the Roman Republic ].

Le conflit propagandiste entre Octavien et Marc Antoine. De l'usage politique de la uituperatio entre 44 et 30 a. Herrscherin und Geliebte [ Cleopatra: Ruler and Mistress ]. A History of the Roman Republic. Broughton, Thomas Robert Shannon The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, Vol. Octavian, Antony, and Cleopatra. Auguste [ Augustus ]. John Wiley and Sons. De Ruggiero, Paolo A Plain Blunt Man. The Age of Augustus. Translated by Deborah Lucas Schneider.

Restless youth in ancient Rome. Man, Soldier, and Tyrant. Michigan Monographs in Classical Antiquity. University of Michigan Press.


In 42 BC, the Roman East was composed of several directly controlled provinces and client kingdoms.

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The Magistrates of the Roman Republic, Vol. This new delay caused Antony to quarrel with Octavian, forcing Octavia to mediate a truce between them.

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