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Toit ja jook Hommikusöök toas. Üldine Lift Toad mittesuitsetajatele. Sixteen elite TKD athletes with a minimum of 8 years competitive experience in the sport age: All participating athletes were black belt holders and classified in the national Division I category. The athletes underwent an intensive periodic TKD-specific training program 10 training sessions per week; 14—15 hours per week during the competitive preparation season, including 2—2.
This training program is designed to prepare participants for the national annual TKD competition. All participating athletes practiced with this training program for at least 8 weeks before the national event.
All participating athletes completed a written informed consent and self-screening health questionnaire prior to these experiments. This study consisted of three consecutive phases: We collected overnight fasting 12h venous blood samples for further biochemical analyses. Prior to the venous blood sample collection, all participating athletes refrained from any form of exercise training or vigorous physical activity for 2 days to control possible confounding factors influencing blood biomarker assessments.
The participating athletes thereafter undertook an 8-week detraining intervention to minimize the regular training load. Subjects were restricted from any form of exercise training or vigorous physical activity. To ensure good dietary pattern control throughout the detraining period we provided detailed nutritional guidelines to all athletes as previously described [ 12 ]. The subjects were instructed to consume food in accordance with the following compositions: They were also asked to periodically maintain computerized physical activity logs three-day physical activity log, 3-d PAL during the competitive preparation season and detraining period week 2, week 4, week 6, and week 8 [ 25 ].
All measurements and venous blood samples were collected as previously described to compare the differences in these parameters before and after detraining. A prerecorded tape emitted a sound signal to guide athletes to follow the running pace. Each athlete had to run between 2 lines spaced 20 meters apart at a pace set by the sound signals. The sound signal frequency started at 8. The signal pace kept increasing until the athlete could no longer follow the pace.
The predicted maximal oxygen uptake was calculated as follows: All anthropometric measurements were performed after overnight fasting 12 h. All instruments were calibrated before the test. A non-stretchable tape measure was used to take hip and waist circumferences. The obtained values determined the waist-to-hip ratio WHR.
Whole blood samples were collected in tubes containing a clot activator with gel separator or anti-clotting reagent ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, EDTA. The serum from each blood sample determined the circulating levels of insulin, cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate DHEA-S. We used an indirect index, the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index HOMA-IR index [ 28 ], for the insulin resistance IR assessment.
All data were analyzed and graphed using SPSS The differences in anthropometric measurements, body composition parameters, aerobic capacity, insulin sensitivity, hormonal concentrations, and hematological profiles before and after 8-weeks detraining were compared using a paired t-test.
Statistical comparisons were adjusted and corrected using the Bonferroni adjustment. One-way analysis of variance ANOVA with repeated measures compared the changes in physical activity level throughout the detraining period. The results are shown in Fig 2A. The overall average physical activity level during DT Fig 2B shows the shuttle run distance and estimated maximal oxygen uptake during the competitive preparation season and after 8-weeks of detraining.
Conversely, the serum cortisol level was significantly lower after 8-weeks detraining —7. Fasting glucose and insulin levels measured during the competitive preparation season and after 8-weeks detraining are shown in Fig 3C. The hematological profiles and inflammatory indics are shown in Fig 4. Fig 4A displays the hematological profiles. Fig 4B displays the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio NLR , which represents the severity of inflammatory status.
A The changes in total white blood cell count and leukocytes subpopulations neutrophils and lymphocytes and B systemic inflammation marker neutrophils-to-lymphocyte ratio NLR were measured during the competitive preparation season with intensified TKD training and after an 8-week cessation of TKD training.
To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating the detraining effects on sport performance-related properties in elite TKD athletes. The primary findings of this study were that 8-week detraining suppresses physiological stress but rapidly results in reduced aerobic capacity, increased body fat and muscle mass loss in young elite TKD athletes.
The increase in body fat mass after detraining closely correlated to the reduced aerobic capacity. Here we provide new evidence that an abrupt TKD training cessation negatively affects aerobic power and optimal body composition but also accounts for the marked increase in inflammatory status and the subsequent development of insulin resistance in these elite TKD athletes. The index for physiological stress and anabolic capacity, evaluated by the ratios of anabolic hormones i.
Moreover, the gradual decline in circulating DHEA-S level has been reported during an intense high-intensity training program [ 33 ]. Based upon these previous findings [ 29 , 30 , 32 , 33 ], we speculate that the dramatic decline in training load during detraining might account for the decreased physiological stress and thereby preserve the DHEA-S circulating level compared to the competitive preparation season.
The increase in DHEA-S level after training cessation may directly reflect the declines in training load and physiological stress. Together with our and previous findings, the physiological challenge was substantially suppressed during the detraining period compared to that during the competitive preparation season. Greater reliance on the anaerobic system occurs in this combat sport. However, several recent studies revealed that the aerobic metabolic system plays a crucial role in sustaining high-intensity activity and facilitating recovery between consecutive bouts during competitive events [ 35 — 39 ].
For all-out exercise with short recovery periods, higher aerobic capacity has been demonstrated in achieving greater recovery capacity after maximal exercise [ 40 ]. Detraining negative impact on endurance athlete aerobic power is well documented [ 10 , 12 ]. The decline in aerobic power from training cessation is the result of the rapid decrease in muscular capillary density, oxygen delivery capacity, and mitochondrial respiratory functions [ 11 , 41 ].
The discrepancy for the magnitude of decreased VO 2max between our and previous studies could be associated with 1 the difference in sport discipline and training modes, 2 the duration of training cessation and 3 the initial cardiorespiratory fitness level. The decline in aerobic capacity from detraining could be the result from the decrease in muscular capillary density, oxygen delivery capacity and mitochondrial functions [ 11 , 41 ].
Our data demonstrated that the substantial decrease in training volume for 8 weeks was sufficient to impair aerobic capacity for this type of elite athlete. The profiles of athletes competing at the international level mostly show low body fat percentage and moderate to high levels of aerobic power [ 2 , 7 , 42 ], suggesting the optimal body composition may be crucial to maintaining high performance levels during competition.
For example, the winners competing at Olympic and national levels generally tended to be classified with less body fat ranging from 7. These results support previous findings of better aerobic capacity along with lower percent body fat in experienced TKD practitioners [ 43 ]. The lower body fat provides a lower weight-to-strength ratio WSR [ 44 ], which could yield a greater advantage in rapid acceleration and deceleration when performing combat movements.
Our results demonstrate the adverse effects of short-term detraining on increased fat mass with musculature loss might diminish aerobic power and competitive advantage in elite TKD athletes. For athletes who perform sports that involve near all-out exercise and short rest intervals, rapid recovery is important in preserving the subsequent sport performance.
Insulin plays a primary role in the recovery process, including facilitating glycogen replenishment and protein resysnthesis in exercised muscle [ 16 , 18 ]. Intriguingly, based upon our results, only 8-weeks detraining was capable of rapidly decreasing insulin sensitivity toward the threshold for insulin resistance in these elite TKD athletes. Consistently, evidence from endurance athletes reveals that 3—8 weeks of detraining decreases insulin sensitivity and increases body fat [ 10 , 13 , 14 ].
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Our data demonstrated that the substantial decrease in training volume for 8 weeks was sufficient to impair aerobic capacity for this type of elite athlete.