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Do reindeer and children know something that we don't? Pediatric inpatients' belief in Santa Claus

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Study Overview The Maternal-Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) Study was established to obtain national biomonitoring data on pregnant women and their infants and to examine potential adverse health effects of prenatal exposure to environmental chemicals on . Driving in Canada might be quite different from driving in the USA. In Canada people drive on the right hand side of the road. Canadian roads are quite long (Canada is a country that spans six time zones!) and therefore always carry food and water with you while traveling long distances. Accidents due to fatigue and drowsiness are common.

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In Canada people drive on the right hand side of the road. Canadian roads are quite long Canada is a country that spans six time zones! Accidents due to fatigue and drowsiness are common. Winter travel can be dangerous due to heavy snowfalls and hazardous icy conditions. Some roads and bridges are subject to periodic winter closures. Snow tires are required in some Provinces. Speed limits vary depending on where you are driving in Canada.

The speed is measured in kilometers per hour kph , which might be a bit confusing for someone who's not used to the metric system. On rural highways, the posted speed limit may be kph.

Speed laws violated can be caught on speed cameras and radar traps. It is illegal to take automobile radar detectors into Quebec, Ontario, Manitoba, the Yukon or the Northwest Territories, regardless of whether they are used or not.

Police there may confiscate radar detectors, operational or not, and impose substantial fines. Seat belt use is mandatory for all passengers, and child car seats must be used by children under 20 Kg 40 pounds. In Canada, if a school bus stops and flashes red lights, traffic in both directions must comply and stop.

Signs and symbols are very similar to those used in most countries around the world, so they display symbols instead of text. In Quebec, most of the signs are in French only, so in certain areas knowledge of French can be important. If you do not own the car you are driving, you must carry a letter from the owner giving you permission to drive. Driving while impaired is a criminal offense in Canada. Penalties are heavy, and any prior conviction no matter how old or how minor the infraction is grounds for exclusion from Canada.

If you are stopped by the police while driving in Canada, stay seated in your car and switch the engine off. Wait for further instructions form the police officer. Do not attempt to do anything yourself. Always be polite and well mannered. Never try to bribe the police officers, or try to pay the fine directly to him. Attempting to bribe a police officer is a very serious crime in Canada.

A modified structured Santa Claus Interview was used. Questions about knowledge of the myth Santa's costume, the colour of Santa's beard and the geographical location of his house were asked if the child did not spontaneously provide that information. Answers considered correct were, respectively, a red suit, a white beard and at or near the North Pole, although it emerged later in my research that the real location of Santa's house was elsewhere see Interpretation.

Each child's belief in Santa was scored by the principal investigator using a 5-point scale of belief in Santa: Parents' belief in Santa was investigated as an indirect marker of fantasy predisposition.

If parents did not believe in Santa, they were asked to evaluate the age at which they stopped believing in Santa. In order to investigate other imaginary figures of childhood, a 5-point scale of belief in the tooth fairy and the Easter bunny was developed and used to question the children.

I also asked about the existence of imaginary friends. The age at which parents stopped believing in Santa was summed with the children's scores on the tooth fairy and Easter bunny questions to give a final score HOHO score of family fantasy predisposition.

Data were analyzed initially using univariate techniques. Univariate association with belief in Santa was evaluated with Fisher's exact test for nominal variables and the Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables.

I attempted to develop a multivariate model. The remaining factors were entered into a multiple logistic regression model, with belief in Santa as the outcome variable. There were no significant differences in belief in Santa between boys and girls. Factors considered in the univariate analysis are presented in Table 1.

Belief in Santa diminished with increasing age Fig. Candidate predictor variables by univariate association with a p value that was less than 0. Two predictors remained in the final model: Because I placed high value on sensitivity, I sought to define predictive factors with the highest possible sensitivity. The presence of any one of these variables predicted belief in Santa with a sensitivity of 0. Among this sample of chldren who were hospital inpatients, awareness of Santa Claus was universal.

All the children in this study were quite familiar with Santa Claus, even if they did not view Santa as real. This study also demonstrated that belief in Santa is inversely proportional to a child's age and directly proportional to the age at which their parents stopped believing in Santa. This last information might be relevant to more fantasy-oriented families in which parental encouragement for the child to believe was very strong.

A study of children who were not hospital inpatients showed that they generally discover the truth on their own at the age of 7 years. Children reported predominantly positive reactions on learning the truth: Half of them thought that even though Santa was not real, they liked the idea of Santa.

Parents, however, described themselves as predominantly sad in reaction to their child's discovery. Fourteen of 27 believers in Santa in this study did not know the location of Santa's house.

This can be explained by the fact that contrary to popular belief, and to what I had believed, Santa Claus most likely does not live at the North Pole. He lives in Lapland, in northern Finland, where the reindeer roam. The fact that the HOHO score failed to be related to belief in Santa in the multivariate analysis is puzzling.

The HOHO score, a measure of fantasy predisposition, may reflect more an assimilation of cultural folklore than independent fantasy predisposition. Initial belief in Santa might be an example of a myth inspired by parents seeking to fulfill their own infantile needs, 5 but the chronic believers might be more fantasy-oriented children. Thus, the HOHO score might be more predictive in the older group.

Further studies are needed to clarify the use of the HOHO score in an older population of children. The limitations of this study are numerous.

This study also demonstrated that belief in Santa is inversely proportional to a child's age and directly proportional to the age at which their parents stopped believing in Santa.

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Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus. Many of the flawless ladies keep their pussies shaved to be mouth watering and they gleefully model every bit of flesh there is to offer.

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